In recent years, photovoltaic power generation has gradually entered rural households, due to the low building in rural areas, surrounded by no shade, and grid-connected convenience, so in recent years many farmers in order to respond to the national call, also successively installed on the roof of their own photovoltaic power generation panels. On the one hand, they use it themselves, on the other hand, the state has subsidies, and the electricity generated is also part of the income to be connected to the grid.
Solar cells were first discovered by the French physicist Alexandre Edmond Becquerel (1820-1891) during his research into a phenomenon - the photovoltaic phenomenon. It is related to the photovoltaic effect. That year Einstein successfully applied the quantum principle to illustrate this phenomenon also won the Nobel Prize.
The photovoltaic principle, when photons shine into a semiconductor material and collide with electrons in an atom, if the photons have enough energy, then the electrons in the outer layers of the atom will absorb the energy and if the electrons absorb enough energy, they will break free from their bonds and escape the metal. It becomes a photoelectron. Photovoltaic panels are made from silicon, where boron or phosphorus atoms are doped into the silicon then a p-type or N-type semiconductor is formed. The contact surfaces form an electrical potential difference and an electric current is formed. The photoelectric effect is the phenomenon whereby light causes a potential difference between inhomogeneous semiconductors or different parts of the semiconductor-metal bond. It is, firstly, the process of converting photons (light waves) into electrons and light energy into electrical energy; secondly, it is the process of forming a voltage.
According to Planck's law, the energy of an incident photon is inversely proportional to its wavelength. Short-wavelength radiation occupies the purple end of the spectrum and includes ultraviolet radiation and gamma rays. Long-wavelength radiation, on the other hand, occupies the red end and includes infrared radiation, microwaves and radio waves. So solar photovoltaic panels can generate electricity just as well on a rainy day, but for technical reasons the efficiency of solar energy conversion is still very low and rainy days are not as efficient as daytime.
And it is also currently possible to generate electricity by friction on a rainy day, which converts to graphene electricity on a cloudy day. This is because there are sodium, calcium and ammonium ions in the rain, and the positively charged ion layer will interact with the negatively charged electrons of graphene to combine, thus creating a double layer structure similar to a proposed capacitor. The potential difference between these two layers of the structure is large enough to generate voltage and current.
There are also many factors that affect solar power generation, such as the thickness of the solar photovoltaic panels, where photons can travel between photovoltaic panels and hit other particles, resulting in a loss of energy. Another factor that affects efficiency is the reflectivity of the solar cell. To reduce the loss of reflectivity and increase efficiency, solar cell manufacturers often coat their cells with a non-reflective, light-absorbing material. This is why solar cells are often black in colour.
With the development of clean energy in recent years, solar, wind and water stations can relieve the current pressure caused by energy and also the planet's greenhouse effect.
Post time: May-31-2021